it has a wide range of functions..
3.Decomposition of RBC's
4.Production of bile for fats digestion , absorption and emulsification of lipids.
7.Stores a multitude of
9.Produces Plasma proteins(albumins) and clotting factors and synthesizes angiotensiongen.
10.Breakdown of hemoglobin, creating metabolites that are added to bile as pigment (bilirubin and biliverdin).
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver. Many are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile.
- Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons (e.g. alcohol), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions.
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a spectrum in disease, associated with obesity and characterized as an abundance of fat in the liver; may lead to a hepatitis, i.e. steatohepatitis and/or Cirrhosis.
- Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can for example be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals.
- Haemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage.
- Cancer of the liver (primary hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancers, usually from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract).
- Wilson's disease, a hereditary disease which causes the body to retain copper.
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an inflammatory disease of the bile duct, likely autoimmune in nature.
- Primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune disease of small bile ducts.
- Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic vein.
- Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, found in about 5% of the population.
- Glycogen storage disease type II, the build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system.
(plural hepatitides) implies injury to the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from ancient Greek hepar (ἧπαρ), the root being hepat- (ἡπατ-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" . ]. The condition can be self-limiting, healing on its own, or can progress to scarring of the liver. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of liver damage worldwide. Hepatitis can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol), other infections or from autoimmune process. It may run a subclinical course when the affected person may not feel ill. The patient becomes unwell and symptomatic when the disease impairs liver functions that include, among other things, removal of harmful substances, regulation of blood composition, and production of bile to help digestion.
Most cases of acute hepatitis are due to viral infections:
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
- Hepatitis B with D
- Hepatitis E
- Hepatitis F virus (existence unknown)
- Hepatitis G, or GBV-C
A large number of drugs can cause hepatitis:
- Agomelatine (antidepressant)
- Amitriptyline (antidepressant)
- Amiodarone (antiarrhythmic)
- Atomoxetine [
- Halothane (a specific type of anesthetic gas)
- Hormonal contraceptives
- Ibuprofen and indomethacin (NSAIDs)
- Isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, and pyrazinamide (tuberculosis-specific antibiotics)
- Ketoconazole (antifungal)
- Loratadine (antihistamine)
- Methotrexate (immune suppressant)
- Methyldopa (antihypertensive)
- Minocycline (tetracycline antibiotic)
- Nifedipine (antihypertensive)
- Nitrofurantoin (antibiotic)
- Paracetamol (acetaminophen in the United States) can cause hepatitis when taken in an overdose. The severity of liver damage may be limited by prompt administration of acetylcysteine.
- Phenytoin and valproic acid (antiepileptics)
- Troglitazone (antidiabetic, withdrawn in 2000 for causing hepatitis)
- Zidovudine (antiretroviral i.e., against HIV)
- Some herbs and nutritional supplements
Special regards by
Dr.M M ADNAN