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Causes of Liver Cirrhosis


Chronic hepatitis, eg HBV, HCV

Alcoholic hepatitis

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Sclerosing cholangitis

Autoimmune hepatitis

Hemochromatosis

Wilson disease

Indian childhood cirrhosis

α1 antitrypsin deficiency

Cystic fibrosis

Cryptogenic( idiopathic) cirrhosis.



Clinical Consequences of Liver disease.1

Jaundice and cholestasis

Hypoalbuminemia

Hyperammonemia

Hypoglycemia

Fetor hepaticus

Palmar erythema

Spider angiomas

Hypogonadism

Gynecomastia

Weight loss

Muscle wasting.

Clinical Consequences Of Liver disease.2

Portal hypertension from cirrhosis:
Ascites
Splenomegaly
Hemorrhoids
Caput medusae—abdominal skin

Life-threatening complications of Hepatic failure

Multiple organ failure
Coagulopathy
Hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatorenal syndrome
Esophageal varices, risk of rupture

Malignancy with chronic disease

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Metaplasia, Dysplasia and Anaplasia.

Metaplasia (Greek: "change in form") is the reversible replacement of one differentiated cell type with another mature differentiated cell type.

Dysplasia (from the Greek δυσπλασία "malformation", δυσ- "mal-" + πλάθω "to create, to form"), is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development.[1] This generally consists of an expansion of immature cells, with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells.

Anaplasia refers to a reversion of differentiation in cells and is characteristic of malignant neoplasms (tumors). Sometimes, the term also includes an increased capacity for multiplication. Lack of differentiation is considered a hallmark of malignancy.