Autosplenectomy - Intially there is moderate splenomegaly caused by congestion of the red pulp with masses of RBCs sickled and jammed together. Which is followed by hypoxia, leading to ischemia and infraction – leading to shruken and fibrotic spleen - This process, referred to as autosplenectomy. Autosplenectomy patients shows presence of Howell jolly bodies in peripheral smears
Increased chances of infection – encapsulated bacteria.
Vascular congestion, thrombosis, and infarction may affect any organ, including bones, liver, kidney, retina, and skin. retinal detachment, chronic leg ulcers , renal infraction, necrosis of head of long bones – AVN of femoral head , can be seen in chronic cases.
Priapism due to obstruction of penile venous outflow that may lead to fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction – impotence.