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Molecular steps in carcinogenesis of Thyroid.

Papillary carcinoma: (75% to 85%): novel fusion genes, known as ret/PTC , which constitutively activate RET and the downstream MAP kinase signaling pathway

Follicular carcinoma: mutations in the RAS family of oncogenes (HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS), PAX8-PPARĪ³1 fusion gene.

Medullary carcinoma: associated with MEN 2

Anaplastic carcinomas: "dedifferentiation" of a well-differentiated papillary or follicular carcinoma; Inactivating point mutations in the p53 .