Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Emphysema and its Types.




Abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls

compensatory overinflation is not associated with destruction of wall tissue, eg after unilateral pneumonectomy

4 types:

Centriacinar (Centrilobular) Emphysema

respiratory bronchioles are affected without involvement of terminal bronchioles and acinus
upper lobes, particularly in the apical segments
Associated with cigarette smoking

Panacinar (Panlobular) Emphysema

respiratory bronchiole to the terminal blind alveoli are involved
Common in lower lung zones
Associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency

Distal Acinar (Paraseptal) Emphysema

adjacent to areas of fibrosis, scarring, or atelectasis
Bullae formed adjacent to pleura; so also called bullous emphysema
spontaneous pneumothorax in young adults

Irregular Emphysema

healed inflammatory diseases




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