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Normal Values and Concentrations (Blood)

The mean diameter of RBCs is 7.8um and a thickness of 2.5um

Plasma Proteins

Albumin (60%)
Globulins (36%) (Antibodies & transport proteins)
Clotting Proteins (4%)
Enzymes & Hormones

Hematocrit (the percentage of Blood that is cells--normally, 40-45%) and Quantity of hemoglobin in each respective cell are normal,the Whole Blood of Men contains an average of 15 grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of cells; for Women it contains an average of 14 grams per 100ml

In Normal men Average number of RBCs per cubic millimeter is 5,200,000
In Normal women ,it is 4,700,000

The Adult Human being has about 7000 white blood cells per microliter of Blood (in comparison with 5 Million RBCs): Of the total WBCs, the normal percentages of the different types approximately the following:

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils 62.0%
Polymorphonuclear eosinophils 2.3%
Polymorphonuclear basophils 0.4%
Monocytes 5.3%
Lymphocytes 30.0%

Platelets (thrombocytes) : Normal concentration in the blood is between 150,000-300,000 per microliter.

The Clot begins to develop in 15-20 seconds if the trauma to the vascular wall has been severe, and in 1-2 minutes if the trauma has been minor.

Serum cannot clot because it lacks these factors.

Decreased Prothrombin , Factor VII , Factor IX and Factor X Caused by Vitamin K deficiency ( also for Protein C)

Bleeding ordinary lasts for 1-6 minutes.

The action of Heparin lasts about 1.5-4 hours.

Normal clotting time is 6-10 minutes.

The Normal prothrombin time is about 12 seconds.

Comparison between Neutrophils and Macrophages:

Neutrophils :A single neutrophil can usually phagocytize 3-20 bacteria before itself becomes inactivated or dies.

Macrophages:They are much more powerful phagocytes than neutrophils often capable of phagocytizing as many as 100 bacteria.

Stimulation of Growth and Proliferation of Cytotoxic and Suppressor T cells:

The Lymphokines interleukin-2 has an especially strong stimulatory effect in causing growth and proliferation of both Cytotoxic and Suppressor T cells.

Stimulation of Growth and Differentiation to Form Plasma cells and Antibodies:

Especially interleukin 4,5 and 6 have such potent effects on the B cells that they have been called B-cell stimulating or B cell growth factors.

Relative Frequencies of Different Blood Types:


RBC's normally circulate an average of 120 days before being destroyed

Normal adult human hemoglobins

Form:HbA Chain Composition: a2b2 Fraction of total Hemoglobin:90%

Form:HbF Chain Composition:a2gamma-2 Fraction of total Hemoglobin:less than 2%

Form:HbA2 Chain Composition:a2sigma-2 Fraction of total Hemoglobin:2-5%

Form:HbA1c Chain Composition:a2b2-glucose Fraction of total Hemoglobin:3-9%