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Difference between Primary aldosteronism and Secondary aldosteronism


Primary Aldosteronism

  • Increase intravascular Volume
  • Decrease RENIN Level
  • Do not have pedal edema
  • Hypertension


Secondary Aldosteronism

  • Decrease intravascular Volume
  • Increase RENIN level 
  • Somtimes have Edematous state
  • Hypotension

Swellings

Lipoma 
  • Benign tumor from adipose tissue
  • Commonest benign tumor
  • Can be single or multiple(lipomatosis), usually encapsulated, slowly growing, soft swelling
  • Usually painless. 
  • Types 
  • Painful lipomas are called neurolipomas . Dercum’s disease is tender deposition of fat especially on the trunk also known as adiposis dolorosa. It is basically neurolipomatosis.
  • Fibrolipoma
  • Nevolipoma 

Sites :
  • Subcutaneous 
  • Subfascial 
  • Intramuscular
  • Submucosal in GI tract
  • Not present in brain

Clinical features
  • Usually localized , nontender semifluctuant  mobile mass with edges slipping between palpating fingers 
  • It is free from overlying skin
  • Differential diagnoses
  • Neurofibroma
  • Sebaceous cyst
  • Dermoid
  • Lymph node enlargement

Complications
  • Sarcomatous changes
  • Saponification 
  • Calcification 
  • Submucosal lipoma can lead to intussusception

Treatment 
Excision 

Sebaceous cyst
  • Retention cyst due to blockage of the duct of sebaceous gland
  • Contains yellowish white cheesy material
  • Common sites face , scalp and scrotum (not seen in palms and soles)
  • Clinical features
  • Painless swelling which is smooth, soft, nontender, freely mobile but adherent to skin over the summit, fluctuant, nontransilluminant and punctum over the summit (70%)
  • It moulds on finger indentation 

Dermoid

Types :

1.Sequestration dermoid
  • Cysts generally develops in line of embryonic fusion. So may be seen anywhere in midline, outer angle of dermoid, behind pinna or root of nose
  • Clinical features- painless swelling in the line of embryonic fusion, soft, smooth, fluctuant and nontransillumintating with free skin

2. Implantational dermoid
  • Due to minor pricks or trauma, epidermis gets buried into deeper subcutaneous tissue which causes reaction and cyst formation.
  • Common in fingers , toes and feet
  • Clinical features – swelling is painless , soft , tensely cystic nontransilluminating often adherent to skin


TREATMENT : Excision

Ganglion


  • Cystic swelling containing clear gel formed by degeneration of synovial tissue.
  • Occur in relation to tendon sheath or joint capsule
  • Common sites: dorsum of wrist, flexor aspect of wrist
  • Clinical features
  • Well localized smooth, soft , cystic, nontender, transilluminant and mobile but mobility restricted when tendon is contracted against resistance


Treatment 
excision but high recurrence rate

Bursa

Bursa is a sac like cavity containing fluid within which prevents friction between tendon and bone
Minor injuries and pressure lead to bursitis which will present as swelling and  pain
Treatment excision if necessary

Neurofibroma 
  • Tumor arising from connective tissue of the nerve.
  • Can be single or multiple
  • Types :
  • Nodular neurofibroma – single, smooth, firm, often tender swelling which moves perpendicular to direction of nerve but not in the direction of nerve
  • Plexiform neurofibroma – commonly occurs in the direction of Vth cranial nerve in skin of face . It attains enormous size with thickening of skin which hangs downwards.
  • Generalised neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease) – it is inherited as autosomal dominant disease. Multiple neurofibromas associated with pigmented spots in skin (cafĂ© au lait spots) . Associated with MEN type IIb   

Complications 


  • Sarcomatous change – rapid enlargement, warm and vascular with dilated veins
  • Cystic degeneration
  • Hemorrhage into tissues
  • Erosion of deeper structures
  • Neurological deficits may occur

Treatment : excision for symptomatic , cosmetically problematic or malignant changes

Callosity and corn 
Callosity 
  • raised thickened patch of hyperkeratosis common in areas which undergoes excessive wear and tear.
  • Histologically there is increased thickening of epidermis particularly the stratum corneum and granular layer 


Corn 
  • Circumscribed horny thickening cone-like in shape with its apex pointing inwards and base at surface.
  • Occurs at the site of friction and often disappears spontaneously when causing factor is removed
  • Histologically composed of keratin masses with intact basal layer
  • Often caused by ill-fitting and tight shoes chiefly affecting feet and toes. 


Wart 

  • Patches of overgrown skin with hyperkeratosis
  • Usually occur in children and adolescents and young adults
  • Growth occurs due to stimulation by HPV
  • Main complaint is disfiguring 
  • Frequently affects hands, face, knees, and sole (plantar warts) .
  • Warts are usually firm and covered with rough surface and filifom excrescences.

NUTRITION

Caloric requirement in adults – 40kcal/kg/day
Carbohydrates 50% , fat  30-40% and protein 10-15%
Caloric value- carbohydrate and protein - 4kcal/g and fat – 9kcal/g

Indications of nutritional supplementation
  • Preoperative nutritional depletion
  • Burns
  • Trauma
  • Anorexia nervosa and intractable vomiting
  • Pancreatitis, malabsorption, ulcerative colitis, pyloric stenosis
  • High output intestinal fistulas
  • Postoperative complications like sepsis, ileus and fistula
  • Malignant disease

Methods of feeding

Enteral feeding
  • GI tract is the best route to provide nutrition.
  • Can be done 
i.Orally
ii.By nasogastric tube
iii.By enterostomy e.g. gastrostomy and jejunostomy in severe malnutrition, major surgeries, severe sepsis



Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Indications:
  • Failure or contraindication for any enteral nutrition
  • High output intestinal fistulas
  • Major abdominal surgery of liver, pancreas, biliary tract, colon
  • Septicemia
  • Multiple trauma
  • Short bowel syndrome
  • TPN is given through central vein and not through peripheral vein
  • Components used in TPN – carbohydrates, fat, aminoacids, vitamins and trace elements
  • Contraindications :
  • Cardiac failure
  • Blood dyscrasias
  • Altered fat metabolism
Complications of TPN 

1.Due to placement of CVP
  • Air embolism
  • Pneumothorax
  • Bleeding
  • Infection 
  • Catheter displacement, sepsis, blockage, thrombosis
2. Biochemical
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hyperosmolarity
  • Dehydration
  • Azotemia 
  • Altered immunological function
3. Others
  • Dermatitis
  • Anemia 
  • Cholestatic jaundice.